Information from the oldest traditions about Moses
seems to lead, together with archaeological findings, to secret places, where
Moses and his people “in the desert” were protected for a majority of years.
Originally, in these secret bases Moses - inaccessible to those not
initiated - may have hidden for posterity valuable Egyptian archives and
treasures. According to ancient Egyptian historian Manetho, he had seized them
in Egyptian temples.
The idea about the Ark of Convenant in
the Temple of Jerusalem
- with the star above - on ancient Jewish coin.
Places Suitable for Hiding the Large Group of Israelites
During both European and Arab-Middle Eastern history, permanent reports appear
about Moses and that he should have left hidden in particular Egyptian
treasures of a special kind. The places in the Middle East, where they might
be sought, which the knights templar tried in 1100-1300, should be
encircled to localities big enough for habitation of a very large number of
persons. Or was it exactly like that? Concrete information suggests more
The Bible states the number of emigrating Israelites to approx. 600,000 men plus
women and children. All together, maybe more than two million people plus their
cattle. That many people were hardly living in all of Egypt at that time. This
tremendous amount of people could not with any possibility be gathered in one
big camp site anywhere in the Middle East.
The Hebrew expression used in the Bible for “1,000” as an exact number, is
elef in singularis and lafim in pluralis (1,000s). But elef
can also mean “family”, the root word is alaf meaning “to connect”,
actually “a league” - in Exodus 600 groups/units thus being in total c. 6,000
From the same root the same idea is expressed in the related Assyrian language
by li’mu or limu, which means both “thousand” and “people”. In
Hebrew the word rebabot is also used for: “thousands as indefinite number”,
e.g. “large group” - the base is rbb, meaning “to be many”. G.E.
Mendelhall, the semitologic expert, emphasised that the number of Israelites
refers to military lists, where “thousands” just means a minor military unit. Cf.
also the north Egyptian fortress cities Moses entrenched at first, as a standard
were built for 6,000 men.
In this way the number of Israelite men of approx. 600,000 has actually meant
600 “great groups”, either “combat groups” or rather “family clans” even
understood as “tents”, i.e. comprising men capable of bearing arms (plus these
men’s households); later, however, they were understood as exact numbers.
However, the original meaning is still clear in the times shortly after the
Exodus, i.e. the emigration from Egypt - as being read in books of the Bible:
“Judges” (6,15), “1. Samuel” (10,19), and “Mika” (5,2). Accordingly, in total
there have been some hundred in each tribe, each being subdivided in numbers of
In those days huge, mobile army groups of armies could count 5-10,000 men. Later
the Roman pluton consisted of just 5-6,000 men - a self-governing unit. In
military history, units of more that 40,000 were considered too extreme; they
were neither easily mobile nor directed or feed.
For instance, the huge groups would achieve decreased logistics, i.e. poor
transportation and communication. In particular, feed for draught animals would
present a problem - their presence will demand a lot of food and huge amounts of
water - one ox is capable of carrying its own weight of food for approx. a week.
In ancient Egypt there are examples of huge engineering works with groups of
workers plus foraging staff up to 10-, 15- or 20,000 men, but just not larger
than this. Feeding problems could possibly be solved by a considerable delivery
system, whereas an army will often be bound to move to areas with new feed
Not until the 30-Year War in Europe in the 17th century operating with
independent army groups of a seize more than 40,000 men were common - i.e. in
late 18th century and further on till Napoleon. He had almost 600,000 men on his
expedition into Russia, however divided into independent groups of 5-6,000 men,
and few of 40,000 men. Improved roads and cartography of the Age of
Enlightenment caused these changes. Furthermore, particular improved
possibilities for storing (preserving) and transporting big amounts of feed, e.g.
the potato, the new food article (this American plant - of course at first in
Europe since Columbus - became important, non-perishable food article fit for
longer preservation period and transportation).
If - based on later translations - the “thousands” (the 600,000) is to be
understood in stead of “groups”, they would be so voluminous that when the first
groups of that extensive number of Israelites via Sinai would have arrived in
Canaan, last groups would not even have left Egypt.
The Red Sea, where Moses and his people
crossed a bay with temporarily dried out waters
The Israelites would not have been able to move faster than the cattle they
brought! That the Israelites in reality only numbered a few thousand persons,
who crossed a temporarily drained branch or bay of the Red Sea, verifies the
short use of time. The passage of the group were spread over the sea-bed via
several “paths”, where the Israelites and:
“… Moses crossed the sea in two hours …”
- according to records of ancient rabbinical writings papers (Baring Gould,
”Legends of Old Testament Characters from Talmud and Other Sources”, II, p.
Neither Pharaoh’s pursuing troops could hardly have exceeded a realistic number
of probably 5,000 (max. 10,000 men). Desolate Sinai would have space enough for
the life of only approx. 6,000 bedouins. There would have been accommodation for
a few more, because the fertility in Sinai as well as Egypt/North Africa was
better due to more rain at that time; however, not enough to feed such a big
wandering group, and not at all comprising the misinterpreted number of more
than half a million. Even with today’s facilities a group of emigrants of half a
million would be impossible – and, in addition, unthinkable as self-providing.
The real number of Israelites, max. 6,000 men - plus women and children (as well
as cattle) - should be seen in relation to the fact that the previously
mentioned biblical text, The Song of Deborah (“Judges” 5,8), is later mentioning
40,000 men (capable of bearing arms) in the entire Israel. With the relatively
low population of the past that means a realistic multiplication in the
centuries after their invasion of the Land of Canaan.
At Sinai “the front” of Mount
Moses facing the long valley plain.
Moses’ Perfect Military Bases
The emigrating Israelites were heading east and reached that holy mountain,
which in the Bible is called Horeb or Sinai, and is perceived to be two mountain
peaks in the same valley. Often mountains were sacred and named after a god.
Sinai was a part of Egypt, and the Mount Horeb (Horev) as well as a
mountain north of the Sinai Peninsula, Hor, may originally have been
named after the Egyptian god, Horus (Her or Heru), which
could also be seen related to the moon - cf. that Mount Sinai, Mount
Horeb’s spur, by Semitic people were related to Sin, their lunar god.
Later the geographical location of the mountain has been questioned, since so
far it has not been possible to prove exactly that the mountain on which Moses
had presented the Law of Moses, is located in exactly the area now called the
Out of a number of other suggested locations several can be found on The Arab
Peninsula. In 1967 during the June War following modern Egypt’s attack, the
Israeli army conquered Sinai. Now Israel herself had Sinai researched
intensively, and researchers can point out 20 mountain peaks as the possible
Mount Sinai/Horeb. However, according to the old tradition still in existence,
this mountain bearing the later Arab name Djebel Musa, i.e. Mount Moses (2,205
metres), is located on the southern part of the Sinai Peninsula.
The Israelites’ big Sinai camp - suitable for taking up residence for a long
time - was really professionally located in a protected area, that is at the
foot of this Mount Sinai. Military experience combined with his local Sinai
knowledge already achieved during his exile, made Moses select the 3 kilometre
long plain in front of Mount Sinai as camp site for the many Israelites, one of
the absolutely strategically best suited sites of Sinai at all: Hidden from
views from the outside, surrounded by mountains, and with provisions of water
and grass for the cattle.
St. Catharina Convent in the gorge. Right:
The author’s photo-angle to the Sinai mountain massif and the plain.
Especially from the biblical report about Moses, it will appear that he had to
find places for sojourn for the wandering people’s army of the Israelites. A
close examination of these sites shows that the choice was very good,
strategically well situated and protected.
Indeed, one of the places of safety was just the plain in front of “Mount Sinai”
- from where, according to tradition, Moses announced the Laws. In much later
times, the Convent of St. Catharina, the one of the oldest of the Christian
convents, was built at the foot of the mountain.
Von Haven, one of the participants of the Danish scientific expedition to Egypt
in 1761-1762, headed by Carsten Niebuhr, engineering officer, said that he
himself from this Sinai site had:
“…previously made the observation that we could not possibly be at the
Mount Sinai. The convent was situated in a narrow valley, and the valley was not
big enough for an average army to camp, not to mention 600,000 men, as is said
to have followed Moses together with their wives and children, which in total
must have amounted to more than 3.000,000…”.
At an early stage the relation between faith and rational version of history
became a problem. E.g. in the 14th century A.D. with Ibn Khaldun, the Islamic
historian, according to his work, “Prolegomena, an introduction to world history
(Al-Muqadima)”. Ibn Khaldun describes straight, that Moses could not possibly
have form up an army of 600,000 men”, but adds that:
“…says the holy text, so that is the truth …”. (And a miracle!).
The biblical text about the Exodus leaves the impression of an army in number
amounting to a little less than one million, which would have had difficulty in
hiding being a size like that. Let it be repeated here, that this is a later
misunderstanding, as the Hebrew word for 1,000 in earlier times also have meant
“a considerable amount”, “a very large group”. Referring to the “600,000” men
must have meant that the Israelites were divided in c. “600 large groups” -
probably 600 clans (average 50 families in each of the 12 tribes), which all
provided with men capable of bearing arms: the Israelites amounted to c. 6,000
men in total. The plain at the foot of Mount Sinai is large enough to have
facilitated such groups of Israelites and their women, children, and cattle,
i.e. 3 kilometres long and with a width of 1 kilometre, together with a western
collateral branch of almost 1 kilometre. There is even a small wadi for
Moses had arranged the Exodus as a military operation - i.e. more than only a
migration. The words used in the Bible - e.g. in “Exodus” (13,8-20 and 14,2-9,
and 14,19-20) and rabbinical writings - are “equipped (Hebrew: chamushim)
for fight” and “they went off in combat formations”; in one word the emigrating
Israelites were called zaba, “an army”. It would be meaningless to use
that word if there was no war situation or combats. Also, “they camped (vajachanu)
“, and their “camp (maachaneh)”. All normal military expressions. Jethro
and his group wanted to visit Moses at Sinai, but initially he had to send off
an arrow carrying a note into the well guarded camp. Moses’ camps should be as
fortresses. Because - as the rabbinical writings find - pharaoh was desperate to
get hold of something in the possession of Moses!
Previously, it has been discussed if the mountain mentioned in the Bible is
located on this part of the Sinai Peninsula or at Sinai at all. The mountain in
question near St. Catharina Convent at Sinai is located in front of the flat
ground called the Er-Raha Plain. Actually, two mountains are located here: Ras
Safsafe and directly at the southern end of the plain, Djebel Musa (“Mount
Moses”, 2,285 metres).
The oblong valley plain of Sinai with the
centre elevation, which discretely could block the enemy’s observations
(the bungalow hotel, built in 1985, as seen by the author’s camera at the foot
of the mount of Moses).
Advantages of the Sinai Valley
From the Bible it is prevailing also that the march of the large, slow group to
Mount Sinai took some days. Tradition says that this was the exact place. And
indeed, here is extremely advantageous and strategic advantages. A majority of
details are not mentioned in the scientific hypotheses, which they often want to
point to another locality or to reject the account. However, the information
presented is confirmed by observations directly at the location.
At a time when the location was still undisturbed, thorough studies of local
conditions were done by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Dean of Westminster, another
traveller. According to his book, “Sinai and Palestine” (2nd ed., London 1885,
pg 107-109) - no doubt prevails:
“…that such a plain can exist at all in front of a mountain, is such a
remarkable coincidence with the holy report that not only is it a strong
indication because of its identity with the biblical image, but also because
this image has been described by eye witnesses…”.
“…Everybody returning from the enclosed basins behind Mount Ras
Sa(f)safeh through the wry gorges flanking to the north and south would hear
sounds borne through the silence from the plain, but would not see the very
plain, until he appears from Wadi el-Deir or Wadi Leja; and when he appears he
will be beneath the pointed Mount Sa(f)safeh right away …”.
Concerning the defence, this was an ideal area, shielded from enemy eyes and
protected from unexpected attacks from a major groups of enemies, because
entrance facilities were narrow.
During one of his visits to Egypt the author has by personal inspection been
able to ascertain that the nature of the plain in question is ideal - really, an
optimum site both as far as strategy and provision is concerned, considering the
conditions of that time. In order to obtain a better perception in practice of
the site, pacing off the longitudinal direction of the valley plain proved to
last up till 1½ hour from one absolute outer end to the other.
This disclosed another advantage: the flat bottom of the valley plain facing
mountains in the far end of the valley is rising “unobserved” in the middle,
causing that a camp in one end of the valley will be unnoticed by invaders from
the opposite end.
Following a conspicuous opening on April 25, 1985, by Egyptian President Mubarak,
and with understandable regard to tourism, in a large part of this valley plain
there was build up a whole village, hotels, a hospital, energy and draining
plants, etc. - although mainly situated on the big collateral branch of the
plain. Several thousands are living here including personnel and tourists,
almost as many as the Israelite camp was holding. From an income point of view,
the entire village could quite as well have been placed right outside the valley,
so that this large valley plain could have been preserved as a historic and
geographic unique site.
Also, periodic minor rain rivers run from the rocks, so when Moses - according
to “Deuteronomy” - threw gold dust from the Golden Calf in:
“…the brook running from the mountain…”
- this is also fitting in with this specific location and even the time of year.
Moses and the Israelites emigrated to this site in spring, in Easter time, as is
well known. The above mentioned travelling Dean Stanley says:
“…this would be perfectly possible in Wadi-er-Raheh, where the Wadi
Leja brook runs in a heavy downfall, but that is from Mount St. Catharina - yet
still sufficiently closely attached to Djebel Musa to justify the expression
‘running down and out of the rock’ …”.
This refers to the entire rock massif, where Mount Moses faces the vast plain,
while the extension of the mountain leads into the narrow gorge - with the
convent later placed at its foot.
Actually, it was extremely important that Moses as a responsible strategist had
selected a site for a longer stay, here providing possibilities for water and
feed, in particular for the cattle: the very valley plain from Mount Sinai
amounts to 1,6 square kilometres - added to this are useable areas in adjacent
valleys - and there are sources in these valleys.
Where laymen will focus on strategy and tactics, military analysis experts will
in particular also evaluate an often less conspicuous logistic, i.e. the
provisions and maintaining services (establishing communications and
transportation lines and logistic controls). Under ancient conditions and
techniques these were a factor of decisive influence on strategy, because moving
armies would have to seek food for themselves - as later expressed by Cato: “the
war provides for itself”.
That the Israelite people of the deserted areas of the Middle East was able to
survive up to forty years would be an achievement which in that case can show
how very well Moses has been in command of these important sides of the art of
Mount Hor med the tomb of Ahron, according
to the Bible. Early 19th century illustration.
The hidden mountain valley of Petra south of the Dead Sea offers the same good
conditions for protection and feed of a “people’s army”. Quite near Petra is
Mount Hor, where - according to the Bible - Moses and the Israelites stayed.
Especially two facts point to the assumption that with his strategic abilities
Moses also used Petra:
- Mount Hor, where Ahron was buried, is situated only 5 kilometres from Petra.
It would be natural that Moses with the Israelites have stayed in the disguised
place, Petra, during several of the many years of their desert journey, when
they were “disappeared”, and when their whereabouts are not reported. (Cf. that
Lawrence of Arabia was hiding his troops in similar ways in the not so distant
valley, Wadi Rum).
A stay in Petra, this completely hidden and isolated place, might be part of the
explanation, why the Bible does not report on the journey of Moses and the
Israelites in approx. 38 of the 40 years of the Exodus. Petra is the most
perfect fortress - created by nature, ideal as the base of the para-military
groups of the Israelites; and impregnable for the troops of Pharaoh - or for the
Edomites, who, so close to Egyptian borders and dominance, may have found it as
an opportune situation to be enemies of the Israelites. The hostility is
mentioned in the “Exodus”.
However, such a place is not suitable for a long stay for a large group of
people living from goat- and sheep farming, as many of these omnivorous animals
may destruct the growth forever, if they are not removed to other areas after
Therefore, the Israelites may have split up, e.g. in two main groups on journey
for more than 30 years in the eastern parts of Iraq and Persia and possibly in
the Indian borderlands of Kashmir, where there is also a tradition for the
burial of Moses. Later such traditions pop up again in Europe in mediaeval
legends, in which the journey of Moses also took him to India.
Some scientists discuss the invasion of Canaan as coming in waves; possibly
Joshua, Moses’ successor, invaded only with warriors in the first wave - as an
advance-guard in order to pave the way for the other Israelites.
As said already, later the Edomites entrenched themselves here. And after them
the Nabataes had Petra as their base for their robbery activities. - Later, even
the knights templar used the place as the impregnable fortress (and may also
according to their ideology have sought for possible hidden information from the
stay of Moses).
Until late in Europe, the city was conceived of as a mythical city. But where
of this hidden city was - nobody knew. Its existence was then regarded for 700
years as mysterious and doubtful, until Burchhardt, a Swiss explorer, disguised
as an Arab, found it in 1812.
The Kazneh Temple in Petra, Greek-Roman
style, cut out directly of the rock, here seen from the narrow
entrance path through the mountains. Also Arab traditions tell about a hidden
treasure of Moses, but mention
this much younger temple as hiding place. - Right: The entrance path to Petra
seen right from the Kazneh.
Trace - Moses Resided in Petra
The biblical account of Moses claims (“Leviticus” 20,22) that Moses and the
Israelites also reached the previously mentioned Mount Hor, 1,336 metres, in
Arab called Djebel Haroun, “Mount Ahron”. Further is said that later Ahron died
and was buried here:
“…at the border of the country named Edom…”,
- i.e. the country that the king of the Edomites denied the Israelites to cross
via the so-called “King Road”.
In his “Antiquitates” (4,82-83) Josephus, the ancient historian, reports that
Mount Hor (Djebel Haroun) is located close to - here approx. 5 kilometres - the
hidden (valley with the later) mountain city, Petra, where the border of Edom
was. Periodically, the Edomites have also ruled Petra.
An early tradition - still strongly observed by local Arabs - connects Moses to
Petra. Close to this suitable residence runs a desert brook or rain river, a
wadi, the rain river brook named after him, Wadi Musa. Prior to any tourist
industry later in Antiquity, it was common that when a location had been named
after a person, it was likely to have had a true connection. In Petra there was
room enough for Moses and his people: at a later time in one end of the valley
in the very city lived 25,000 citizens.
Thus it must be assumed that Moses and the Israelites resided in Petra, which
was perfect for the purpose by being impregnable: - placed in a completely
closed mountain valley. Only access to the location was through a long gorge of
approx. 25 kilometres - easy to defend being extremely narrow, no more than 1½
metres with tall, and vertical rock walls.
Inside the long valley of Petra of several kilometres there was water for the
cattle in 2 (however periodical) small rivers: they provide water and feed as
the absolutely crucial requirement for accommodation for a big army. Further, at
a rather early stage a water transportation groove had been cut out, not to be
discovered immediately, because it was placed up the rock wall by the narrow
path leading into the city.
Juvelius, the Finnish librarian and
researcher, took part in the Parker Expedition in 1909-1911, which
investigated the secret tunnels of Jerusalem. He also did research in Petra and
made this sketch of the sites'
areas worth researching (Repr. with permission; from Erling Haagensen’s book,
“The treasure of the knights
templar” (2000) - the illustration belongs to his copy collection of Juvelius’
papers, - www.merling.dk).
The residence as a main base in Petra for Moses and the
Israelites - selected on the basis of the same strategic pattern as both the
Sinai Valley and later the Mount Nebo base, was established for long periods
during the 38 years. “Deuteronomy” (2,1-14) reports about only 18 camp sites for
all these years, as well as the fact that until right prior to the invasion
where they all went off for the new base at Nebo, they lived over and over again
in Kadesh-barnea, the location of which has never been found or proved!
The Bible reports that the very biblical country, Israel, was reaching exactly
to Kadesh-barnea, i.e. a characteristic location - like Petra. Hieronimus, the
Bible translator (347-420 A.D.), mentions that even at his time at Petra the
tomb of Miriam, Moses’ sister, situated in Kadesh-barnea according to the Bible,
was presented. Also Josephus mentions Kadesh-barnea in the desert district at
Petra seems identical to Kadesh-barnea, known as the location from which
- according to the Bible - Moses asked east-Jordanian kings or tribe leaders for
granting a safe-conduct on the “King Road” from the south to the north, the very
ancient road passing Petra. The long stay here of Moses and the Israelites is
contributing to making probable, that in this suitable rock hide-away were
deposited parts of their previously mentioned Egyptian archives and goods. An
Arab tradition of several thousand years mentions here the treasure of Moses. -
In any mentioning the Israelites’ so-called “40 years in the desert” is known -
and indeed, Petra is located in the desert. In “Deuteronomy” (1,46), they stayed
mainly in Kadesh-barnea:
“…so you (the Israelites) were living in Kadesh for many days
(“times”), all the time (the many days/years) you were there…”.
The Egyptian word petr means among other things “a holy or serene place”
exactly as Kadesh, the locality name, does! The Egyptian meaning may have
been adopted as a name for Greek-influenced Petra, later build in the
mountain valley; in Greek Petra means “the rock”, which does the Hebrew
name Sila (Ha-Sela). Since ancient times the Petra valley has indeed been
a sacred place, where e.g. lunar cults and bloody sacrifices have taken place -
and later also human sacrifices by the Edomites, often young girls selected and
consecrated to the lunar god.
That also Moses used this ancient, sacred place - for his new religion - can be
confirmed by an altar cut out of the rocks of Petra and meant for the sacrifices’
bloody part and as a blood drain and the washing facilities for the high priest:
All as by the instruction in the “Exodus”, thus equal to the arrangement
by precisely the same instructions in the later Jerusalem Temple.
The large valley plain of Petra with the
With Moses and later in the temple, this altar was to be used for the sacrifices
of specially selected cattle - well known from the Bible. In the ancient temples
it was not unusual that the priests sold parts of the meat from sacrifices for
the earnings of the temple and themselves.
Moses had not been able to abolish completely the tradition of Egypt - where the
Israelites had been living for four generations - to use “consecration” of
animals for subsequent sacrifices. Instead he seems to a higher extent than
elsewhere to have chosen to incorporate the fact that when a slaughter for the
people’s fleshpot was to take place, it was reasonable to let it happen by
sacrifices, by which all relevant hygienic instructions of his laws were
strictly observed (a necessary precaution against deadly dangerously food
infection in these areas with very high temperatures to very quickly causing
According to the 1970-1990 investigations of Petra by Ian Browning, the British
archaeologist, the altar for non-bloody sacrifices (of shewbread) was also cut
out in the exact measures of the Israelites’ shewbread altar:
“... two feet long and one feet width and 1½ feet tall ...”
- like Moses reports in the “Exodus” (25,23) with exactly these measures.
Pope John Paul II visits the top
of Mount Nebo
with the wide view far into Israel. March 2000.
Mount Nebo, the Last Bastion of the
Prior to the invasion of Canaan, the selection of the last camp site of the
Israelites was equally well strategically selected. In order to achieve the
strategically most advantageous position for exploring Canaan, an optimum
position was made by letting the Israelites camp at the foot of Mount Nebo thus
to prepare the invasion.
The locality was easy to defend - this last camp had provided the Israelites
with a good strategic basis: during the invasion preparations an ideal site for
a protected base of command and in particular as an observation post, and where
the “chief command” could even seek shelter in the cave systems at the foot of
the mountain, in ancient (early bronze age) tombs. From the peak of the mountain
it is also possible to make observations far into Canaan, so that it is in fact
also possible to see faintly Mount Hermon in Libanon.
From Mount Nebo 17 kilometres east of River Jordan, the invasion was planned -
and from here it set off. From Pisgah (802 metres), the peak of Mount Nebo,
there is a free and enormous view over Jericho in the Jordan valley and further
on to the mountains Ebal, Gerizim, and Tabor far into the western areas and in
clear weather the said Mount Hermon 60 kilometres away.
At the foot of Mount Nebo and its surroundings can be found remains of caves for
tombs with a number of the mentioned bronze age tombs. The Bible reports that
Moses might be buried in this area. With the 40 years of Egyptian traditions and
habits as his primary background, it was simply inconceivable not to place here
(and possibly also at the two other main bases of the Israelites) the Egyptian
treasures - and valuable archives - he had confiscated in Egyptian temples
according to Manetho (cf. below).
Because Moses as is known refrained from the normal burial cult and the
worshipping of rulers and magnates, but concealed his burial place (like certain
Egyptian models), he has been able to keep it protected for the future,
inaccessible to those not initiated.
Crusaders in Egypt. Contemporary illuminated
Knights Templar Visited Bases of
Moses in Sinai, Petra, and Nebo
Survey: In reports of the oldest traditions, discoveries of inscriptions, and
archaeological circumstances - all in relation to Moses - there seems to be
collaborating traces of secret places, where Moses and his followers “in the
desert” were protected during the majority of the 40 year desert exile. It was
in these hidden, strategically optimum bases that Moses may have hidden for the
future - inaccessible to those not initiated - valuable treasures and Egyptian
archives, which, as mentioned, he had seized in the temples of Egypt, according
to Manetho, 280 B.C. This ancient Egyptian-Greek historian Manetho is quoted for
this by Josephus in “Antiquitates”, § 249 (from I, 2,27, and in particular I,
2,309-315), as well as by ancient historian of the church, Eusebius of Caesarea.
How much of the ancient knowledge did the great Moses bring out of Egypt? And if
he did, have important parts of it, when he died, been hidden and deposited in
his secret tomb near Mount Nebo, as well as in his and the Israelites’ secret
base in Petra? Certain parts of this treasure of knowledge seem later to have
been hidden again in tunnels of the cave system beneath the Temple of Jerusalem.
According to the Bible, the Ark of Covenant carried two cherubs of gold;
Egyptian symbol and style. Gold
relief, 18th dynasty. - Right: design for tunnel constructed by king Hezekias
(727-698 B.C.), this is just one of
several tunnels beneath the Jerusalem Temple Mount, among the alleged hiding
places for the Ark of Covenant.
The Parker Expedition traced even the existence of secret tunnels hidden behind
walls of “artificial rock”.
As previously mentioned, the knights templar sought for nine years from 1118 in
the underground maze of Jerusalem, where they had founded their organisation,
just shortly after the first crusade (in 1099). Did they find anything? Quickly
they also made these searching raids into the double cave of Makpela (the tomb
of the Abraham family) in Hebron, in Petra, and down into Egypt - and in
Ethiopia, where they have left their heraldic badges in some of the churches.
Officially, the first knights templar should protect the sacred places of the
pilgrims, but certainly was Petra, for instance, was not among such places.
The crusaders had invaded Egypt, but just north of Cairo they were beaten by the
grate ruler Saladin, leader of the Egyptian army. However, representatives of
the special groups of the knights templar went on, not as conquerors, but on
searching raids. Their only possible return to Palestine would probably have
been by sea (the Red Sea), because the victorious Egyptian army was now
dominating the areas through which the group’s return otherwise could have been
made. It seems primarily to be the group that reached Ethiopia - and is presumed
to have stayed there.
The Maltese Cross of the knights templar was placed in ancient churches in
Ethiopia. - Right: St. Mary
Church, which Lalibela, the returned prince of Ethiopia, now king, had had cut
out in one piece of a huge rock.
Consistently the sources are reporting that the knights templar were searching
for in particular the following four subjects:
1) The treasure of knowledge of Moses and Egypt.
2) The physical (gold)treasures and other valuables of Moses and Egypt, of
which some parts later were incorporated in the temple treasures of Jerusalem.
3) Knowledge about relations of the royal blood line of ancient Egyptian
Pharaohs - of which also Moses was a special link with his nativity background -
and further on to the ancient Israeli kings’ blood line, to which Jesus is later
considered to belong. This line is still being discussed as having been carried
on to the south of France as early as in Antiquity, at that time a normal place
for moving-out (cf. the fact that the Romans also - however, beside this report
- exiled a Jewish king to the south of France).
4) The possible hiding of the Ark of the Covenant, for instance at Mount Nebo,
or in secret tunnels beneath the Temple Mountain in Jerusalem. Or alternatively,
according to other traditions, brought to Ethiopia early, or - after a long stay
with a Jewish group, known historically, at the Elephantine Island in the Nile -
brought by the knights templar while escorting Lalibela, an Ethiopian prince,
back to his country in 1185.
The persistent ideas through history of the “treasures of Moses” and the like,
which might be the anticipated Egyptian archives, are often seen almost
inevitably to cause associations to movie dramas (Indiana Jones-like actions).
This has also contributed to the fact that many scientists are often avoiding
such data. That such possible counteracting from academic side may seek to
impede further investigations, should not prevent anybody from making them.
Ove von Spaeth
Copyright © 1998 & © 2004 -
Parts of the text are from “The Secret Religion” and “Prophet and Unknown
Genius” from The author's book-series
"Assassinating Moses"; p.t. in Danish only. C.A.Reitzel, Bookseller,
Moses and the Israelites had the Sinai valley
plain as a naturally protected camp and Mount Sinai as a fine
observation post - long time in advance they could be warned against pursuing
Egyptian troops. From the
mountain Moses presented his Law, during Whitsuntide, in the beginning of May.
The author’s photography
shows the same view, 4 o’clock in the morning on May 4, 3,459 years later.
The incredible beautiful temple, Kazneh,
style, cut out directly in the pink rock in the hidden city, Petra.
Illustration dating to early 19th century